In October 1810 the Allied position in Portugal appeared precarious. Despite defeating Marshal Masséna's French army at Bussaco, Wellington had been forced to retreat to within a few miles of Lisbon. Here the French encountered a massive line of fortifications stretching from the River Tagus to the sea. Built amid great secrecy and on Wellington's specific orders, these Lines of Torres Vedras were the French high-water mark. In February, with his army on the point of starvation, Masséna was forced to retreat and the scene was set for the climactic action of Fuentes de Oñoro.


Origins of the Campaign
Opposing Commanders
Opposing Armies
Opposing Plans
Torres Vedras
The Winter fighting
The Battle of Fuentes de Onoro

Fuentes de Onoro 1811


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