The battle of Gettysburg is probably THE most famous and well known battle of the American Civil War. It was the high tide mark for Confederate forces and probably the best opportunity for the South to win the war. As the battle lasted for three days and involved close to 200,000 men, it is a challenge to wargame in full for all but the most determined and committed of wargamers, usually involving an entire club or team effort. So today we have selected one section of that epic battle; Culp's Hill.

From the map on the left of the entire battle, you can see that Culp's Hill stood at one end of a ridge of high ground south of the town which extended west then south to include the probably more well known Cemetery Ridge before ending with the two promontories, Little Round Top and Big Round Top.


The Battle of Gettysburg was actually not planned, but rather an escalation of opposing scouting parties meeting and through engaging, gradually sucking in more and more reinforcements from their respective main armies, until eventually one of the largest battles of the war was created.


The first day of battle largely saw a build of men on both sides and initiatives being taken by divisional and brigade commanders, as both the Union's General Meade and the Confederate's General Lee were some way back in their respective lines of advancing troops. Like I said, this battle wasn't planned, or even desired at this location, but happened purely by chance and circumstance.


As evening drew in on the first day, the Union realised that the high ground south of Gettysburg was critical if the battle was to be won, and so they took up defensive positions along this long ridge, using timber and rocks to create a line of barricades where they could, and then readied themselves for the Confederate assault that would surely come the next day.


Culp's Hill saw some of the most ferocious and continuous fighting of the battle, starting on day two and going on throughout the third. Our Battle For Wargamers today is the beginning of this two day struggle for Culp's Hill, with the forces initially deployed on the morning of the 2nd July. On the following day both sides would send in reinforcements, but for the purposes of this article and to keep the battle to a manageable size for most, we are looking at just the first day and as to whether the Union defenders can hold the hill against the Confederate attacks long enough to be reinforced that night for the next day.



Suggested initial set-up for "Culp's Hill" Gettysburg

As there are so many different rule sets for the ACW including the much awaited Epic Battles by Warlord Games, with regiment sizes ranging from maybe a dozen figures to sixty, we have opted this time not to suggest unit sizes by the number of figures, leaving that to your choice depending on your preferred rules.


ORDERS OF BATTLE


Union Army


Brig.General James S. Wadsworth - Commander In Chief - experienced, inconsistent, respected leader


I Corps - 1st Brigade - (The Iron Brigade)

Brig.General Solomon Meredith - Sub-Commander - experienced, determined, inspirational leader

19th Indiana Regiment - veteran, solid morale, musket

24th Michigan Regiment - veteran, solid morale, musket

2nd Wisconsin Regiment - veteran, solid morale, musket

6th Wisconsin Regiment - veteran, solid morale, musket

7th Wisconsin Regiment - veteran, solid morale, musket

Steven's Artillery battery - experienced, solid morale, 12lb Napoleon guns


I Corps - 2nd Brigade

Brig. General Lysander Cutler - Sub-Commander - experienced, excellent tactician, respected leader

7th Indiana Regiment - experienced, solid morale, musket

76th New York Regiment - experienced, solid morale, musket

84th New York Regiment - experienced, solid morale, musket

95th New York Regiment - experienced, solid morale, musket

147th New York Regiment - experienced, solid morale, musket

56th Pennsylvania Regiment - experienced, solid morale, musket


XII Corps - 3rd Brigade

Brig.General George S. "Old Pappy" Greene - Sub-Commander - veteran, excellent tactician, inspirational leader

60th New York Regiment - experienced, solid morale, musket

78th New York Regiment - experienced, solid morale, musket

102nd New York Regiment - experienced, solid morale, musket

137th New York Regiment - experienced, solid morale, musket

149th New York Regiment - experienced, solid morale, musket

Kinzie's Artillery battery - experienced, solid morale, 12lb Napoleon guns

Rugg's Artillery battery - experienced, solid morale, 12lb Napoleon guns


XI Corps - 1st Brigade

Colonel George Von Amsberg - Sub-Commander - veteran, experienced leader

82nd Illinois Regiment - experienced, solid morale, musket

45th New York Regiment - experienced, solid morale, musket

157th New York Regiment - experienced, solid morale, musket

61st Ohio Regiment - experienced, solid morale, musket


Confederate Army


Major General Edward "Clubby" Johnson - Commander In Chief - veteran, temperamental, respected leader


II Corps - Steuart's Brigade

Brig.General George H.Steuart - Sub-Commander - veteran, inspirational leader

1st Maryland Battalion - veteran, solid morale, musket

1st North Carolina Regiment - veteran, solid morale, musket

3rd North Carolina Regiment - veteran, solid morale, musket

10th Virginia Regiment - veteran, solid morale, musket

23rd Virginia Regiment - veteran, solid morale, musket

37th Virginia Regiment - veteran, solid morale, musket


II Corps - Williams' Brigade

Col. Jesse M.Williams - Sub-Commander - veteran, inexperienced of brigade level command, respected leader

1st Louisiana Regiment - veteran, solid morale, musket

2nd Louisiana Regiment - veteran, solid morale, musket

10th Louisiana Regiment - veteran, solid morale, musket

14th Louisiana Regiment - veteran, solid morale, musket

15th Louisiana Regiment - veteran, solid morale, musket


II Corps - Jones' Brigade

Brig.General John M. Jones - Sub-Commander - veteran, inspirational leader

21st Virginia Regiment - veteran, solid morale, musket

50th Virginia Regiment - veteran, solid morale, musket

42nd Virginia Regiment - veteran, solid morale, musket

44th Virginia Regiment - veteran, solid morale, musket

48th Virginia Regiment - veteran, solid morale, musket

Union troops defend Culp's Hill

THE BATTLE AS IT HAPPENED


Most of the Union soldiers defending Culp's Hill had seen action the previous day before being ordered to take up position on the high ground. Brig,General Wadsworth had followed the orders but in line with his inconsistent leadership, he failed to order his brigades to "dig in" and it was only thanks to his brigade commanders, such as "Old Pappy" Greene who had been a civil engineer for a period, that orders were given to create field fortifications. As his brigade had been given a mile and half stretch of the ridge to defend, it was good foresight on his part.


The Confederate division commander, Major General Edward Johnson was also not without his failings. On the first day he had failed to attack Cemetery Ridge before it was properly defended; action that if taken could have ended the battle there and then, but then on the evening of the 1st July, having re-positioned at the foot of Culp's Hill, he directly refused superior orders to attack immediately, stating he would rather rest his men and for morning, which gave the Union soldiers time to create barricades and fortify their position.


Lee's plan on the morning of the 2nd July was to attack the ridge at opposite ends simultaneously with Longstreet's I Corps attacking Little and Big Round Tops while Ewell's II Corps would attack Culp's Hill. However Lee did not want II Corps to fully commit, but rather just cause enough of an attack to hold all the Union troops on the hill in place and not be sent to the other end as reinforcements. Ewell initially used artillery (off map) to shell the hill, but this failed to do the job intended and several Union brigades left Culp's Hill to reinforce further along the ridge, leaving the troops as laid out on our suggested set-up map. At this point Ewell saw no alternative but to launch a frontal assault, and the three Confederate brigades made their first attempt at scaling the slopes. By now it was late afternoon and in the wooded slopes visibility became strained, especially with the clouds of gun smoke that hung in the air.


On the Confederate right flank, Jones' Brigade found things the hardest going. It was here that the slopes were steepest and littered with boulders, which although offered some protection also broke up their formations as they advanced. Advancing and firing as they went, the Confederates were suddenly confronted by Greene's fortifications which seemed impassable. the 60th New York regiment poured fire down on the southerners from behind their barricades and Jones' men were forced back. Jones himself suffered a serious leg injury and was carried from the field. Despite the apparent ease with which the Union soldiers had stopped Jones, several of their officers admitted that had it not been for the barricade Greene had insisted on, then they would have been overwhelmed on the ridge by both the ferocity of Confederate charge and the density of their musketry which had largely been absorbed by the fortifications.


In the centre the Louisiana regiments made their assault, dusk was turning to darkness and for the Union defenders it was only when flashes of musket shots appeared that they could see where their enemy was. The ground here was a little easier than where Jones had tried, but was still an exhausting challenge, especially in the dark. Upon closing in on the Union positions, Williams' men were also aghast at the substantial defences running along the ridge, but a firefight that lasted several hours ensued. Finally the Confederates began to fall back as their casualties grew from the musket fire of the 78th and 102nd New Yorkers.


Steurat's men on the left flank made the best progress, advancing again in the dark, they were a difficult target for the Union defenders. The 3rd North Carolina regiment made contact first, but unfortunately where the defences were strongest and a point blank range volley of muskets from the Union men felled them in droves, scattering the survivors down the hill. Further to the left though, the 23rd and 10th Virginia regiments managed to outflank the 137th New Yorkers, forcing them back to a new position at 90 degrees to their original one in an attempt to hold back the Confederates. This was the most success of the night for the southerners, and they inflicted over 30% casualties on the 137th NY. Miraculously, the regiment held the line, for had it fallen at this end it would have likely opened up a route that that Confederates could have exploited to get behind the Union fortifications and capture the ridge, not just at Culp's Hill, but potentially all along the Union lines.


The intensity of the fighting here, was heard along Cemetery Ridge, causing so much concern that Union reinforcements were sent along the line to support the Culp's Hill defenders. Likewise, for the Confederates, that tenuous but definite foothold on the ridge on their left flank, would give them sufficient hope to bring up reinforcements too. The following morning the battle would recommence in even greater numbers and would see some of the most sustained and intense fighting of the entire Battle of Gettysburg, but we will share that scenario another day.


Confederates attack Culp's Hill

WARGAMING THE BATTLE


At first glance the battlefield may look a challenge for recreating, but it is in simple terms just a long piece of high ground easily represented with foam blocks or "books under the cloth" as we did back in the day, with a few trees scattered along the slopes to represent the pine trees covering the hill. The creek on the right plays no significant part in the battle so could be omitted is it makes life easier.


The important thing is to play to an agreed time scale, so you represent the passage of time and to end the game at around midnight when reinforcements for both sides would start to appear and completely reshape the engagement for the following day.


If the Union manages to hold the line as it did on the 2nd July it should be considered a Union victory, but if the Confederates manage to either break the line or turn the flank as they almost did that evening then a Confederate victory should be declared.


Even though this is just a small section of the overall Battle of Gettysburg, it is still quite a sizable tabletop game to play, probably lending itself to smaller scales such as 10mm or the new "Epic" scale when it releases next month. But whatever scale you use we would love to see some pictures come in of your recreation of this engagement and we will feature them in our new "Gamers Gallery" that we are starting soon to share the hobby with others.


And finally don't forget you can still pre-order the Epic Battles Bumper Bundle for just £99.99 if you hurry, we have only a handful left at this price. Just click on the image below to see the full details and order yours.



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In Spring 1863, General Grant and the Union Army of Tennessee set out to capture Vicksburg and in doing so, control the Mississippi River. Having crossed the river about 15 miles south of Vicksburg on the 29th April he advanced first in a north easterly direction towards the state capital, Jackson, where the Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston and his army were positioned. Grant wanted to both eliminate them as a threat to his siege of Vicksburg and also to capture and disrupt himself the railroads and supply lines that ran through Jackson.

As his army marched towards Jackson they came to Fourteen Mile Creek a short distance south of Raymond. His army, which in total consisted of three corps, was spread out across a broad front with Raymond on their far right flank.


The Confederate Brig.General John Gregg was dispatched to Raymond with a strike force of around 3,000 men with the orders to block and hold the Utica Road and to hit the flank of the advancing Union troops. However, poor intelligence had suggested that the Union forces advancing directly towards Raymond consisted of only a single brigade, when in actual fact it was the entire XVII Corps of almost 12,000 men.


First contact was made early on the morning of the 12th May when skirmishers from both sides exchanged shots across the creek, but by 9am the Union commander, Maj.General James Birdseye McPherson, decided that the Confederates were not just a skirmish line, but a larger force, and ordered his forces to form up for battle.



Suggested initial set up for the Battle of Raymond

ORDERS OF BATTLE - using a man to figure ratio of 20:1

Confederate Army

Brig. General John Gregg - Commander in Chief - experienced, good tactician, inspirational leader

1st Tennessee Regiment (420 men) 21 figures - veteran, battle hardened, steady morale, musket

Bledsoe's Missouri Battery (3 guns) 1 model - experienced, steady morale, 12lb cannon

7th Texas Regiment (300 men) 15 figures - veteran, battle hardened, steady morale, musket

3rd Tennessee Regiment (480 men) 24 figures - veteran, battle hardened, steady morale, musket

41st Tennessee Regiment (300 men) 15 figures - veteran, battle hardened, steady morale, musket

50th Tennessee Regiment (440 men) 22 figures - experienced, steady morale, musket

10th Tennessee Regiment (300 men) 15 figures - veteran, battle hardened, steady morale, musket

30th Tennessee Regiment (400 men) 20 figures - experienced, steady morale, musket


Union Army

Maj.General James Birdseye McPherson - Commander in Chief - veteran, experienced, good tactician, inspirational leader


Third Division

Brig.Gen John A. Logan - sub-commander - experienced, respected leader

1st Brigade

20th Illinois Regiment (400 men) 20 figures - experienced, well trained, steady morale, musket

31st Illinois Regiment (520 men) 26 figures - experienced, well trained, steady morale, musket

45th Illinois Regiment (500 men) 25 figures - experienced, well trained, steady morale, musket

124th Illinois Regiment (460 men) 23 figures - inexperienced, trained, musket

23rd Indiana Regiment (480 men) 24 figures - experienced, well trained, steady morale, musket

2nd Brigade

30th Illinois Regiment (500 men) 25 figures - experienced, well trained, steady morale, musket

20th Ohio Regiment (400 men) 20 figures - experienced, well trained, steady morale, musket

68th Ohio Regiment (480 men) 24 figures - experienced, well trained, steady morale, musket

4th Minnesota Regiment (400 men) 20 figures - experienced, well trained, steady morale, musket

78th Ohio Regiment (540 men) 27 figures - inexperienced, trained, musket

3rd Brigade

8th Illinois Regiment (460 men) 23 figures - experienced, well trained, steady morale, musket

81st Illinois Regiment (480 men) 24 figures - inexperienced, trained, musket

7th Missouri Regiment (400 men) 20 figures - experienced, well trained, steady morale, musket

32nd Ohio Regiment (510 men) 26 figures - inexperienced, trained, musket

Artillery

1st Illinois D Battery (4 guns) - 1 model - experienced, steady morale, 12lb cannon

1st Michigan H Battery (6 guns) - 2 models - experienced, steady morale, 12lb cannon

Ohio 3rd Battery (6 guns) - 2 models - experienced, steady morale, 12lb cannon

Ohio 11th Battery (6 guns) - 2 models - experienced, steady morale, 12lb cannon


Seventh Division - not shown on map but available to arrive as reinforcements behind the Third Division after 1:30pm

Brig. General Marcellus M. Crocker - sub-commander - experienced, respected leader

1st Brigade

48th Indiana Regiment (480 men) 24 figures - experienced, well trained, steady morale, musket

59th Indiana Regiment (520 men) 26 figures - inexperienced, trained, musket

2nd Brigade

17th Iowa Regiment (540 men) 27 figures - inexperienced, trained, musket

10th Missouri Regiment (500 men) 25 figures - experienced, well trained, steady morale, musket

80th Ohio Regiment (480 men) 24 figures - inexperienced, trained, musket

3rd Brigade

93rd Illinois Regiment (460 men) 23 figures - inexperienced, trained, musket

5th Iowa Regiment (540 men) 27 figures - inexperienced, trained, musket

10th Iowa Regiment (560 men) 28 figures - inexperienced, trained, musket

26th Missouri Regiment (480 men) 24 figures - experienced, well trained, steady morale, musket

Cavalry Battalion

2nd Illinois A & E Companies (80 men) 4 figures - experienced, well trained, steady morale, sabre, pistol and carbine

4th Missouri F Company (50 men) 3 figures - experienced, well trained, steady morale, sabre, pistol and carbine

Ohio 4th Independent Company (60 men) 3 figures - experienced, well trained, steady morale, sabre, pistol and carbine

The Rebel Charge by Mort-Kunstler

THE BATTLE AS IT HAPPENED

Skirmishing had started around 7am between the Union's vanguard and some Confederate militia from Raymond who were patrolling south of the Fourteen Mile Creek on the Utica Road. Despite a determined attempt to hold back the Union soldiers, the militia were no match for the regulars and found themselves retreating back across the bridge to the north bank, before eventually making their way back to Raymond. The defence of the creek was now the responsibility of Gregg's strike force.

As the Union skirmishers advanced down into the gully where the creek ran there was a sudden crack of volley fire from the trees opposite and three cannon opened fire, scattering the Union troops and sending them running back to their lines. This prompted Union Maj.General John A."Black Jack" Logan to rapidly deploy his division and bring the artillery forward to form a formidable battery of 22 guns. Despite being outnumbered, Gregg opted to attack rather than defend, and sent the 7th Texas Regiment forward to assault the bridge and Union troops advancing on the Utica Road, while the Tennessee Regiments all advanced along the creek and seized the bridge on the Lower Gallatin Road. The windless day meant the gun-smoke hung in the air and soon the battlefield was a chaotic disorderly fight with many units on both sides simply following their own junior officer's intuition rather than following an overall plan. The more experienced Confederates began to push back the Union line and almost succeeded in routing the entire Union Third Division, but in that critical moment, when all looked lost for Brig. General Logan as he rode among his fleeing men shouting at them to stand and fight, Brig.General Crocker and the Seventh Division arrived in support. Suddenly faced with five fresh Union brigades, the now exhausted and battle scarred Confederates began to fall back. Logan managed to rally the majority of his men once they saw their reinforcements arriving and combined, they counterattacked along the entire front. By mid-afternoon the Confederates had only one cannon remaining in action and some infantry regiments had suffered over 50% casualties. Fearing that even more Union soldiers may be yet to arrive, Gregg reluctantly ordered the army to withdraw, and in a fighting retreat they managed to pull back to Jackson and General Johnston's army.


WARGAMING THE BATTLE

This is a fantastic engagement to re-fight on the table, pitching the battle hardened Confederates against the more numerous but less experienced Union regiments.

There needs to be an account of time kept when playing the game, the battle started as per our map above at 9am and there should be sufficient game turns played to represent at least four hours of time passing before Brig.Gen Crocker and the Seventh Division begin to arrive. An agreed method of dicing their arrival would also be good as their advance on to the battlefield would have been gradual in a line of march.


We make no apologies for timing this Battle For Wargamers to wet the appetite of all those eagerly awaiting the launch of the fantastic new Epic Battles Range of ACE figures by Warlord Games in mid-March. The figures for that would lend themselves perfectly to this battle, simply changing the number of figures we have suggested with a number of bases instead to represent either small, medium or large regiments.


Use the discount code RAYMOND10 and get an extra £10 off our pre-order bundle

If you pre-order yours from us having read this battle, we are offering an extra £10 off our Epic Bundle (as above) and an extra 10% off all the rest of the range as well as our ACW books,

Use the discount code RAYMOND10 for the bundle and RAYMONDoff on other sets and books.




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The Battle of Lund, although not that well known outside of Scandinavia, was one of Europe's

The 21 year old, King Charles XI of Sweden

most important battles in the late 18th century. It was major engagement in what is called the Scanian Wars, a conflict between Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Brandenburg which saw several national boundary changes by its end. However for may historians it is seen as a "northern theatre" of the greater Louis XIV Wars being waged in western Europe. Whichever way you decide to consider it, the Scanian Wars are a fascinating and exciting piece of history that are well worth refighting in miniature.


Since the Battle of Halmstad in August 1676, the war between Denmark and Sweden had become a chess game of manoeuvring, but as autumn turned to winter Charles XI of Sweden new that his army would not last much longer in the field without adequate supplies and quarters. He also knew that if he retired north for the winter then the Danes would more than likely never be removed from Scania (the region of modern day southern Sweden), however considering the poor state of his army it was far from certain that they could take the Danes on in battle either. His army numbered around 7,500 compared to the Danish 11,000 who in addition had just been reinforced by another 1,500 sailors, although their use on a battlefield was debatable. A third option open to Charles, as well as the retreat north or direct attack on the Danes; was to try and slip past the Danes, crossing the River Kavlinge and making a dash for Malmo, where there were supplies his army could replenish on. The arrival of Swedish & Finnish reinforcements from the north on the 24th November, including two infantry companies and a Finish cavalry regiment, gave the Charles the boost he wanted to try the dash for Malmo, with the security of now having a larger force if it turned into a battle.


The problem of getting past the Danes though still was very real. The Swedish army and Danish army were camped opposite each other about 4km apart with the River Kavlinge between them. To get to Malmo Charles would have to cross the river and sweep around the Danish camp in a 270* arc before having a clear route to his destination. On the 30th November good luck came to Charles and his army in the form of the first strong winter weather blowing in which began to freeze the river. Under cover of darkness, for several days, Charles and his officers would reconnoitre the river and test the thickness of the ice, waiting and hoping it would thicken enough to support his entire army crossing it and on December 2nd it was gauged at 10cm thick and sufficient to move the army. The order was given to prepare to move out and to expect battle on the other side, a coded message was sent to Malmo informing the forces their of the plan. As uniforms at this time were far from standard, as a final preparation the Swedish troops attached tufts of straw to their hats and sleeves to identify themselves as friendlies in case in the confusion of melee they could see who was who.


At 1;30am on the morning of the 4th December the Swedes started their move, small groups of men reinforced the ice with wooden planks and slush, that would refreeze quickly and harden to provide a roadway for the artillery to cross. This went until after the moon set around 2:30am at which point the army formed up in five columns and slowly and quietly began to walk towards the river, cavalry leading their horses on foot. By 5am the entire army had crossed the river without alerting the Danes to their movements despite now being less than 3km away. It's possible the Danes did hear noises of horses and wagons and thought it was the Swedes retreating, but if they did they failed to investigate and the Swedes were unchallenged.


As the army passed to the left of the Danish camp Charles considered a surprise attack but scouts reported a tangle of stone walls and fences between them that would hamper any attempt by cavalry and artillery to close in unobserved, so the they continued their march south, moving past and beyond the Danes and towards the town of Lund. The Swedes knew that as dawn approached they were bound to be spotted and then intercepted by the Danes so they planned to seize high ground outside Lund which would cover their route to Malmo, with this in mind, Charles ordered a vanguard of cavalry forward to secure that area. As this small force advanced, the dawn broke and the Danes saw they had been outmanoeuvred; surprised but not panicked, the Danes sprang into action and within 30 minutes the entire army had turned about and was forming up into a battle deployment, as well as a cavalry force on their left wing effectively racing against the Swedish vanguard to reach the area around Lund first. The terrain, littered with walls and gullies was not easy for either army to move over, but the Swedish vanguard narrowly beat the Danes to area around the windmill north of Lund, securing their path to Malmo, before turning to engage the Danish cavalry opposite them. In the frosty sunlight at around 8:30am, the Battle of Lund was about to begin.



Suggested initial set up for the Battle of Lund

ORDERS OF BATTLE using a figure ratio of 20:1 (approx)


The Swedish Army


Field Marshal Simon Grundel Helmfelt - joint Commander-In-Chief - veteran, experienced, excellent tactician

King Charles XI of Sweden - joint Commander-In- Chief - veteran, impetuous, good tactician, inspirational leader


Right Wing (Cavalry) 1st Line

Lt. General Otto Wilhelm von Fersen - sub-commander - veteran, experienced, elite, inspirational leader

2 Squadrons Viborg Dragoon Regiment (240 men) - 12 figures - Open Order Cavalry, veteran, experienced, solid morale, sword, dragoon musket

1 Squadron His Majesty's Drabant Guard (150 men) - 8 figures - Close Order Cavalry, veteran, elite, excellent morale, ferocious fighters, sword, pistols

5 Squadrons Life Regiment of Horse (530 men) - 26 figures - Close Order Cavalry, veteran, experienced, solid morale, sword, pistols

4 Squadrons Abo-Viborg Cavalry Regiment (303 men) - 15 figures - Close Order Cavalry, trained, newly recruited, good morale, sword, pistols

2nd Line

Maj.General Leonard Johan Wittenberg - sub-commander - veteran, experienced, reliable leader

1 x Squadron Scania-Bohulsan Dragoon Regiment (60 men) - 3 figures - Open Order Cavalry, veteran, experienced, solid morale, sword, dragoon musket

2 Squadrons The Retinue of Nobles (200 men) - 10 figures - Close Order Cavalry, veteran, experienced, solid morale, sword, pistols

2 Squadrons The Reinforcement of Nobles (170 men) - 8 figures - Close Order Cavalry., veteran, experienced. good morale, sword, pistols

1 Squadron Old Smalanders (120 men) - 6 figures - Close Order Cavalry, veteran, experienced, good morale, sword, pistols

1 Squadron The Civil Service's Temporary Regiment (100 men) - 5 figures - Close Order Cavalry, well trained, experienced, good morale, sword, pistols


Centre (Infantry) 1st Line

Lt.General Martin Schultz - sub-commander - veteran, experienced, inspirational leader

3 Battalions His Majesty's Life Guard of Foot (600 men) - 30 figures - veteran, experienced, elite, excellent morale 1/3 pike 2/3 musket

1 Battalion Skaraborg Regiment (240 men) - 12 figures - veteran, experienced, solid morale, 1/3 pike 2/3 musket

1 Battalion Dalecarlia Regiment (125 men) - 6 figures - veteran, experienced, elite, musket

1 Battalion Vastogota Regiment (100 men) - 5 figures - veteran, experienced, solid morale, musket

1 Battalion Haslinge Regiment (120 men) - 6 figures - well trained, experienced, solid morale, 1/3 pike 2/3 musket

1 Battalion Narke-Varmland Regiment (120 men) - 6 figures - veteran, experienced, solid morale, 1/3 pike 2/3 musket

1 Battalion Vasternorrland Temporary Regiment (176 men) - 9 figures - well trained, experienced, solid morale, 1/3 pike 2/3 musket

Artillery deployed along front (8 x 6lb guns & 4 x 3lb guns) - 2 x 6lb models 1 x 3lb model with crew, veteran, experienced, sold morale

2nd Line

Maj.General Barthold de Mortaigne - sub-commander - veteran, experienced, steady leader

2 Squadrons Viborg Dragoons (126 men) - 6 figures - Open Order Cavalry, veteran, experienced, good morale, sword, dragoon musket

1 Squadron Old Ostgotians (66 men) - 3 figures - Close Order Cavalry, veteran, experienced, solid morale, sword, pistols

1 Battalion Gastrike-Halsinge Reserve Regiment (200 men) - 10 figures - veteran, experienced, good morale, 1/3 pike 2/3 musket

1 Squadron Savolax Dragoon Regiment (100 men) - 5 figures - Open Order Cavalry, veteran, experienced, solid morale, sword, dragoon musket

1 Squadron Smaland Dragoon Regiment (100 men) - 5 figures - Open Order Cavalry, trained, newly recruited, good morale, sword, dragoon musket


Left Wing (Cavalry) 1st Line

Lt.General Johan Galle - sub-commander - veteran, experienced, talented leader

1 Squadron Smaland Cavalry Regiment (100 men) - 5 figures - Close Order Cavalry, veteran, experienced, solid morale, sword, pistols

5 Squadrons Viborg & Nyslott Cavalry Regiment (600 men) - 30 figures - Close Order Cavalry, veteran, experienced, good morale, sword, pistols

4 Squadrons Vastgota Regiment (440 men) - 20 figures - Close Order Cavalry, veteran, experienced, good morale, sword, pistols

2 Squadrons Savolax Dragoon Regiment (295 men) - 15 figures - Open Order Cavalry, veteran, experienced, solid morale, sword, dragoon musket

2nd Line

Maj.General Johan Benedikt von Schonleben - sub-commander - veteran, experienced, reliable leader

4 Squadrons The New Retinue of Nobles (590 men) - 30 figures - veteran, experienced, sold morale, sword, pistols

2 Squadrons The Queen Dowager's Life Regiment (140 men) - 7 figures - veteran, experienced, excellent morale, sword, pistols

1 Squadron Savolax Dragoon Regiment (100 men) - 5 figures - Open Order Cavalry, veteran, experienced, solid morale, sword, dragoon musket


The Swedish Drabant Guard cavalry engage the Danes

The Danish Army


King Christian V of Denmark - joint Commander-In-Chief - veteran, experienced, good tactician

General Carl von Arensdorff - joint Commander-In-Chief - veteran, experienced, good tactician


Right Wing (Cavalry) 1st Line

Maj.General Hans Wilhelm Meerheim - sub-commander - veteran, experienced, respected leader

3 Squadrons Ortzens Dragoon Regiment - 15 figures- Open Order Cavalry, veteran, experienced, solid morale, sword, dragoon musket

3 Squadrons The Guard Cavalry - 15 figures - Close Order Cavalry, veteran, experienced, elite, excellent morale, sword, pistols

3 Squadrons Life Regiment of Cavalry - 15 figures - Close Order Cavalry, veteran, experienced, elite, excellent morale, sword, pistols

3 Squadrons 1st Jutland Cavalry Regiment - 15 figures - Close Order Cavalry, veteran, experienced, solid morale, sword, pistols

2 Squadrons Zealand Retinue of Nobles - 10 figures - Close Order Cavalry, veteran, experienced, solid morale, sword, pistols

2nd Line

Maj.General Detlef Rantzau - sub-commander - veteran, experienced, average ability

3 Squadrons Baudissin's Cavalry Regiment - 15 figures - Close Order Cavalry, veteran, experienced, good morale, sword, pistols

2 Squadrons 2nd Zealand Cavalry Regiment - 10 figures - Close Order Cavalry, veteran, experienced, good morale, sword, pistols

3 Squadrons 1st Fyn Cavalry Regiment - 15 figures - Close Order Cavalry, veteran, experienced, good morale, sword, pistols

3 Squadrons 1st Zealand Cavalry Regiment - 15 figures - Close Order Cavalry, veteran, experienced, good morale, sword, pistols


Centre (Infantry) 1st Line

Maj.General Joachim von Schack - sub-commander- veteran, experienced, respected leader

2 Battalions The King's Life Regiment - 32 figures - veteran, experienced, excellent morale, 1/4 pike 3/4 musket

2 Battalions Prince George's Regiment - 32 figures - veteran, experienced, solid morale, 1/4 pike 3/4 musket

1 Battalion Stuart's Regiment - 16 figures - veteran, experienced, solid morale, musket

1 Battalion Croy's Regiment - 16 figures - veteran, experienced, good morale, 1/3 pike 2/3 musket

2 Battalions Prince Frederick's Regiment - 32 figures - veteran, experienced, solid morale, 1/4 pike 3/4 musket

2 Battalions The Queens Life Regiment - 32 figures - veteran, experienced, good morale, 1/3 pike 2/3 musket

Artillery deplyed along the front line (56 cannons of various calibres) - 6 x 6lb models, 6 x 3lb models & crew - veteran, experienced, good morale

2nd Line

Colonel Caspar von Cicignon - sub-commander - veteran, experienced, average ability leader

1 Battalion Lutkens Regiment - 16 figures - trained, experienced, good morale, 1/3 pike 2/3 musket

1 Battalion 4th Jutland Regiment - 16 figures - trained, experienced, good morale, 1/3 pike 2/3 musket

1 Battalion 1st Fyn Regiment - 16 figures - well trained, experienced, good morale, 1/3 pike 2/3 musket

3 Battalions of Commandeered Sailors - 60 figures - basic training, inexperienced, average morale, assorted melee weapons

1 Battalion 3rd Jutland Regiment - 16 figures - trained, experienced, good morale, 1/3 pike 2/3 musket

1 Battalion Plon Regiment - 16 figures - trained, experienced, good morale, 1/3 pike 2/3 musket


Left Wing (Cavalry) 1st Line

Maj.General Anders Sandberg - sub-commander - veteran, experienced, respected leader, hesitant

3 Squadrons 3rd Jutland Cavalry Regiment - 15 figures - Close Order Cavalry, veteran, experienced, good morale, sword, pistols

2 Squadrons Jutland Retinue of Nobles - 10 figures - Close Order Cavalry, veteran, experienced, good morale, sword, pistols

3 Squadrons 2nd Fyn Cavalry Regiment - 15 figures - Close Order Cavalry, veteran, experienced, average morale, sword, pistols

3 Squadrons 2nd Jutland Cavalry Regiment - 15 figures - Close Order Cavalry, veteran, experienced, average morale, sword, pistols

2 Squadrons Rauch's Cavalry Regiment - 10 figures - Close Order Cavalry, veteran, experienced, good morale, sword, pistols

3 Squadrons Schleswig Cavalry Regiment - 15 figures - Close Order Cavalry, veteran, experienced, good morale, sword, pistols

2nd Line

3 Squadrons 4th Jutland Cavalry Regiment - 15 figures - Close Order Cavalry, veteran, experienced, average morale, sword, pistols

3 Squadrons Brockenhus's Dragoon Regiment - 15 fgures - Open Order Cavalry, veteran, experienced, solid morale, sword, dragoon musket


Charles XI at the Battle of Lund

THE BATTLE AS IT HAPPENED


The battle started on the Swedish right wing, where their vanguard made contact with their Danish opposites in the attempt to reach Lund and the windmill first. Swedish cavalry led by the Drabant Guard charged the Danish cavalry, but these were soon reinforced by the arrival of the Brockenhus Dragoons who overwhelmed the Swedes and their reinforcements, forcing them back. The Danes however suffered from the start, General Arensdorf was personally commanding this section and was shot in the right arm, forcing him to leave the field for treatment. He would die of his wounds the following week after gangrene sets in. The two sides separated while they both waited on the more reinforcements catching up to join them before once again charging into a confused melee. The Swedish army had recently been practicing more aggressive tactics, using faster movement and closing to contact quicker, tactics developed by Louis XIV's French as opposed to the slower gentler contact tactics of the 30 Years War still largely used. It may be that these more aggressive tactics helped the outnumbered Swedes, coupled with the Danes loss of Arensdorf, that helped them break the Danish cavalry. Either way, after several attacks and counter attacks, and King Charles XI himself joining the combat, the Swedes sent the Danish cavalry into a rout back towards their camp with the Swedish cavalry in hot pursuit.


King Christian of Denmark had apparently been observing the battle from behind his left wing and as his cavalry came racing back in rout he got caught up in the panic and swept away from the battle towards and past the Danish camp towards the River Kavlinge. As the Danish cavalry attempted to cross the frozen river, the ice which had now been warmed by the day's sunshine gave way and many fell through, drowning in the icy water. Rumours spread that King Christian himself had drowned which spread even more panic in the fleeing cavalry, although this rumour was in fact untrue. It was now though that King Charles's youth and inexperience caused the Swedes problems. As the Danes fled across the river, Charles and his cavalry halted to observe their departure and ensure that they did not rally and return; that in itself is the correct action, however he stayed at the river far longer than necessary, for several hours in fact, while his outnumbered army was left to struggle on the battlefield.


In the centre of the battlefield both sides occupied raised ground with a gully and frozen stream separating them, however the ground on the Danish side stood considerably higher than that of the Swedes which gave their more numerous artillery a huge advantage. It was obvious the Swedes could not simply stand in an artillery duel and so they advanced down from their position to engage the Danish front line. The Danes, now being commanded by Friedrich von Arensdorf, the wounded General's brother, also moved forward to contact the Swedes. Desperate hand to hand fighting began, with the Swedes slowly but surely being pushed back, the army pivoting through 90* so it's back now faced Lund itself. As they became trapped between the city walls and the pressing Danish army, Arensdorf bizarrely pulled the Danish army back to regroup and replenish ammunition. This respite gave the Swedes time to also regroup and steady their formation, but still the King and his Field Marshal did not return to the battle.


As the battle recommenced the Swedish left wing of cavalry managed to gain the upper hand over their Danish opposite numbers and push them back, but in the centre the Danes once again gained the upper hand and began to squeeze the Swedish against the city walls and their attacking front line. Things looked desperate for the Swedish army when finally, as the sun began to set around 3pm, King Charles, his Field Marshal and the cavalry from the right wing returned, appearing behind the Danish centre. The sight of the Swedish Royal Standard boosted the morale of the faltering Swedish centre and the King made an assault to push through the Danish lines and re-join his main army. Although still outnumbered by the Danish, the Swedes suddenly had a renewed energy and gained the initiative over the now exhausted Danish troops. After another half an hour of hard fighting in the growing twilight, the Danish army began to break up and it's troops flee the field. The Swedes pursued in revenge mode, killing all they could catch until around 5pm when Field Marshal Helmfelt ordered a stop to the killing and ordered all Danes should now be taken as prisoner. It had been an exceptionally close run thing, but the Swedish had won the day; estimates suggest the Swedes lost 3,000 killed and 2,000 wounded, while the Danish suffered 6,500 killed, 1,000 wounded and 2,000 taken prisoner.


WARGAMING THE BATTLE

As said at the beginning, the Scanian Wars are not a particularly popular conflict for wargamers outside of Scandinavia, but they are an exciting period to game. Lund is pretty battle to reproduce in miniature so we would suggest smaller scales such as 6mm or 10mm, the Pendraken League of Augsburg range lend themselves very well to both Swedish and Danish forces. As for rules, those who love Wargames Research Group will find DBR works well for this battle, but also the Under Lilly Banners rules would work brilliantly too.


We have been so inspired by researching this particular battle that we will be continuing our work and publishing a "Wargamers Guide" to the battle, complete with uniforms and even more details for those equally inspired to recreate this battle in miniature. It will be the 350th anniversary in a few years time and we at The Little Corporal are already planning a fully detailed and accurate tabletop version of the battle to mark the occasion.


In ending we would like to thank especially the Public Library and Community Hub in Lund, Sweden, without whose generous help and supply of additional information this article wouldn't have been possible.



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